The problems and interesting facts about breeding poultry
As breeders of utility poultry we are interested in the factors which affect features such as : egg colour; egg numbers; meat production; viability; start of lay; length of lay; sexing chicksMuch of the available literature has limited use (although of interest when understanding principles):
for example - much of the work on sexing chicks involves crossing breeds - obviously this is not helpful in restoring pure breeds. The best kowledge is in the heads of breeders who were active yeares ago and much has been lost or not easily available. If anyone knows anything that can help the present and future generations we would all be most grateful.
I hope through this site - from information sent in and articles / books we can all find we can create a pool of knowledge to help us all restore our pure breeds to the best of our ability.
autosomal trait :- a gene carried on a non-sex chromosome and present in two copies in both sexes.
sex-linked trait - a gene carried on the sex chromosome that is present in both sexes; one copy in one sex, two in the other. In mammals, this is the X chromosome (one copy in males, two in females).
In birds, this is the Z chromosome (one copy in females, two in males).
introduction to chicken breeding
While one gene may make only one protein, the effects of those proteins usually interact. Novel phenotypes often result from the interactions of two genes, as in the case of the comb in chickens. The single comb is produced only by the rrpp genotype. Rose comb (b) results from R_pp. (_ can be either R or r). Pea comb (c) results from rrP_. Walnut comb, a novel phenotype, is produced when the genotype has at least one dominant of each gene (R_P_).
Linkage complicates the calculations but can be accommodated by the arithmetic method. Consider this simple example in chickens (for example :Araucanas). The dominant mutant controlling pea comb (P) and that controlling blue egg shell (O, the presence of oöporphyrin) are approximately five crossover units apart on an autosome (Bitgood 1985). The dominant mutant rose comb (R) is independent of the other two. What fraction of the female offspring would be normal from the mating of a parent heterozygous for P, O, and R and a parent heterozygous only for R?
The probability of getting the wild-type allele at the P locus is 1/2, and the probability of getting it with the wild-type allele for the O locus by crossover is 1/20. The probability of getting the wild-type allele at the R locus from both parents is 1/4. The product of these probabilities is the answer, 1/160.
- some combinations of alleles produce lethal combination
In Chickens this trait is called creeper - shortened legs in heterozygous condition and is shown in the (scots dumpy)
Cross of 2 long legged (homozygous) chickens ---> all offspring live and are long legged
Creeper x creeper : 1/3 normal, 2/3 creeper
1:2 ratio - like 1:2:1 except that last one is missing as the homozygous creeper gene results in chicks dying in the shell or just after hatching
So the short legged Creeper bird is heterozygous Cc
SITE MAP : breeds; genetics. breeding; books
This site is being created and maintained by
Jill Bowis of Kintaline Poultry and Waterfowl Centre, Benderloch, OBAN Argyll PA37 1QS Scotland
for the utility poultry breeders everywhere
Any useful information you have for the site is gratefully received